光孝寺——岭南名胜中英文导游

上一篇 / 下一篇  2010-12-30 10:46:16 / 个人分类:东鳞西爪

岭南名胜中英文导游(10)

 

 

光孝寺

Guangxiao Temple

[简介]

    光孝寺是广州众多古迹中历史最长,文物最多的一处景点。光孝寺与潮州开元寺、韶关南华寺、肇庆鼎湖庆云寺并称广东四大名寺,距今已有1500多年的历史。所以广州人常说“未有羊城,先有光孝”,可见其历史悠久。光孝寺位于广州光孝路,以历史悠久,规模宏伟为岭南佛教丛林之冠。面积约31000多平方米。光孝寺中轴线起由南往北的建筑有山门、天王殿、瘗发塔等;西面有大悲幢、西铁塔等;东面有六祖殿、碑廊等;再往东有睡佛阁、东铁塔等。

    光孝寺不但历史长、文物多,而且不少文人和佛教高僧都曾在这里停驻过,使光孝寺成为岭南文化与中原文化交流以及岭南佛教的传播地。在众多的名人中,最为著名的就是佛教禅宗南派创始人六祖慧能大师了。一提起他,大家可能想起他那著名的偈语:“菩提本无树,明镜亦非台,本来无一物,何处惹尘埃”。但又有哪位游客知道慧能是在哪里削发剃度的呢?就是在光孝寺的菩提树下。

[Introduction]

    Among the historical sights in Guangzhou, Guangxiao Temple enjoys the longest history (more than 1500years) and is the richest in cultural relics. Kaiyuan Temple in Chaozhou, Nanhua Temple in Shaoguan, and Qingyun Temple in Zhaoqing and Guangxiao Temple in Guangzhou are well known as the four most famous temples in Guangdong Province. As Cantonese put it, Guangxiao Temple comes before Guangzhou City, revealing its long history. Located on Guangxiao Road, Guangxiao Temple covers an area of 31000 square meters and tops the list of Buddhist temples in South China. Along the axis line, from south to north, there are the Shaomen (the mountain gate), Hall of Heavenly King, Hair Burying Towered. On the west side are Stone Pillars of Infinite Mercy, West Iron Tower, etc.; on the west side are the Hall of the Sixth Ancestor, the Corridor of Steles, etc.; eastward still are Sleeping Buddha Pavilion, East Iron Tower.etc.

    Guangxiao Temple is famous not only for its long history and rich cultural relics ,but also for the fact that many culture celebrities and Buddhist dignitaries have ever stayed here, making it a center for culture exchange between the south and central parts of China and a place for spreading Buddhism in the south . Among the numerous dignitaries is the most famous master Huineng (wisdom and ability), the founder of the southern school of Zen Buddhism. The mention of his name reminds people of his well known Buddhism chant. There is no tree in Bo-dhi, Norms justice the Bright Mirror, since everything is but nothing, where can dust a stir? Has anyone happened to know where Huineng had his own tonsure? Well, it was just under the Bo-dhi tree here in Guangxiao Temple.

 

 

[光孝寺前门]

    光孝寺门前的对联“五羊论古树,初地访问柯林”。这副对联讲的就是光孝寺的沿革,“古树”指的就是当年智药禅师种下的菩提树;“初地”就是指达摩东渡到了广州登岸的地方;当年虞翻在此种下的柯子树,所以光孝寺又叫做“柯林”。

[Front Gate]

    On the front gate of Guangxiao Temple, there is a couplet about the evolution of Guangxiao Temple; Discussing the old tree at the city of Five-goats, visiting Ke woods for the first stop .Here the old tree refers to the bodhi tree planted by Buddhism monk zhiyao (wisdom and medicine), and first stop refers to the landing place of Guangzhou since Budhidharma sailed eastward. Yufan planted some Kezi trees, so Ke Woods is another name of Guangxiao Temple.

 

 

[天王殿]

    这里就是天王殿了。中间这位就是大家熟悉的弥勒佛了,在弥勒佛的两边,是手执法器的四大天王,这些法器分别是剑锋、琵琶、雨伞、龙蛇,合起来正好是“风调雨顺”的意思,表达了人们对生活的美好愿望。

大雄宝殿里坐在正中间的这一位就是释迦牟尼了。只见她结跏跌坐,左手横放在左脚上,右手举起,正像众生说法。释迦牟尼像的后面还有一座千手千眼观音像,据佛经上讲,千手表示遍护众生,千眼表示遍观世间,那就是大慈大悲,法力无边的表现。

    谁佛殿里的汉白玉佛是缅甸汉白玉雕成,长4米,重6吨多,刻的是释迦牟尼的涅像。整座睡佛显得神态安详,体态自然,后来所有的卧佛像都雕成了这样的姿势。

[Hall of Heavenly King]

    Here is the Hall of Heavenly King .The stature in the middle is Maitreya Buddha, familiar to most of us. On his both side are the four Heavenly kings with sword, lute, umbrella and dragon –snake in their hands, symbolizing favorable weather, a good wish of the people for a nice life.

In the middle of Daxiong Bao Dian (Mahavira Hall) is sakayamuni. Sitting cross-legged, left hand on left foot, right hand holding up, he is giving a lecture to the audience. There is a one-thousand-arm-eye Kwan-yin statue behind Sakayamumi. One thousand arms means offering protection for all the people and one thousand eyes means watching the whole world over. It is an indication of infinite benevolent power.

   The stature in Sleeping Buddha Pavilion, 4 meter long and more than 6-oll tons of weight, is carved white marble from Burma. It is the nirvana’s state of Sakyamuin, sedate and natural, hence the model of all the sleeping Buddha statures afterwards.

 

[大雄宝殿后的瘗发塔]

    瘗发塔共有七层,高7.8米,塔德每层都有8个小佛像。塔德基座是以红砂岩所建。整座塔塔形秀丽,是我国极为少见的唐代佛塔。公元676年,慧能到光孝寺来,正好光孝寺的主持印宗法师在此讲经。这时清风徐来,吹动了佛幡,下面的僧人就争论起来,有的说是“风动”,有的说是“幡动”。正在争论不休时,慧能站出来说“不是风动,也不是幡动,而是心动”,众僧人大为佩服。于是印宗法师就在菩提树下为慧能落发受戒,并拜慧能为师,又建造了瘗发塔,将慧能的头发埋在了塔下,从此,慧能成了禅宗南派的领袖,光孝寺因此扬名海外。

[Hair Burying Tower]

    The seven-stories Hair Burying Tower is 7.8 meter high .There are 8 little figures of Buddha on each storey. The base of the tower is built by red sandstone. The tower looks elegant. As a tower of Tang Dynasty, it’s very few of its king in our country. In676A.D. Huineng named it Giangxiao Temple while the Pinzon rabbi was giving a lecture. A breeze swung the long narrow flags in the temple, which caused a dispute disputes among the shaman. Some said it wind that moved. His words won the respect of the shaman. Thus Yinzong rabbi made Huineng has his tonsure just under the bo-dhi tree and called him master. Later a tower was build to bury Huineng’s hair. From then on, Huineng because the leader of southern school of Zen Buddhism. Guangxiao Temple hence gained its popularity both at home and abroad.

 

 

[菩提树]

    这棵枝叶繁茂的大树就是菩提树了,可惜的是,当年智药禅师所种的菩提树已在清嘉庆年间被台风吹折,这棵菩提树是从韶关的南华寺分植过来的,有180多年的树龄了。南华寺的菩提树是当年从光孝寺中移植过去的。

[Bo-dhi Tree]

    The flourishing tree here is Bo-dhi tree. Unfortunately, the one planted by Buddhist monk Zhiyao (wisdom and medicine) was destroyed by typhoon in Jiaqing reign period, Qing Dynasty. This one is transplanted from Nanhua Temple in Shaoguang, with its origin in Guangxiao Temple. It’s more than 180 years old now.

 

[六祖堂]

    现在我们来到了为纪念六祖惠能而建的六祖堂。六祖堂建于北宋真中年间,后来又经多次维修。这位神态安详,充满智慧的雕像就是惠能了。说道六祖,我给大家讲一个在佛教界有名的小故事。当年五祖弘忍在湖北东山寺传法,感到自己年来体衰,想吧衣钵,也就是自己的位置传给一位有慧性徒弟。为了给大家一个平等的机会,吩咐他们每人作一首诗来显示自己的慧性,显示自己有能力接受衣钵,并把诗写在寺院粉墙上。五祖看到惠能写的诗以后,非常欣赏,找到了这个小和尚,在他头上敲了三下就走了。小和尚悟性很高,当晚三更到五祖房里去了,五祖传给他衣钵法器,赐名惠能,成为禅宗六祖,让他连夜往南方去了。后来惠能就在六祖堂前面的菩提树下落发受戒传授禅宗南派。

[Hall of Sixth Ancestor]

    Here we’ve come to the Hall of the Sixth Ancestor in honor of Huineng. It was first built in Zhengzong’s reign period, Song Dynasty, followed by repair for several times. This is the stature of Huineng, sedate and wise. There is a story about him. While the fifth ancestor Hongren (board-minded and tolerant) was giving lectures in Dongshan Temple, Hubei Province, he felt he was old and weak, and considered abdicating his post to a monk with enlightened mind. For equal chance, all the monks were required to write a poem on the white wall of the temple to show their wisdom and qualification. Huineng’s poem impressed Hongren most and Hongren asked an interview of Huineng. But Hongren did nothing during the interview accept 3 knocks on Huineng’s head and left. Huineng was wise enough to perceive he was asked to meet Hongren in his bedroom at midnight. There he got his Buddhist appliance and his Buddhist name Huineng and became the 6th Ancestor, Zen Buddhism. Just in that evening he was sent off to the south, Later, Huineng had his tonsure here under the bo-dhi tree and became the leader of southern school Zen Buddhism.

 

 

[东铁搭]

    在大雄宝殿后面的两侧,还有两座铁塔,这是南汉国在广州遗留下来的古迹。东面的铁塔,是南汉后主刘錶在大宝十年(公元967年)时建造的,铸造很精细,这可算是我国目前发现的最大、最古老、最完整的铁塔了。据史书介绍,在乾隆年间,这座佛塔上还曾有千个贴金小佛像。大家可以想象一下,当年这座佛像是何等的金碧辉煌!西面铁塔建于南汉大宝六年(公元963年),后因铁塔殿倒塌,把铁塔压断成两截。

[East Iron Tower]

    Behind Daxiong Bao Dian, there are two iron towers on both sides. They are the relics of Southern Han state. The one on the east side was founded in 967 A. D. by Liu Biao, the ruler of Southern Han State. Being the largest, oldest and best preserved, the iron tower reveals a refined arts and crafts. It is recorded in history books that there once were one thousand gold coated little figures of Buddha, You can imagine how gorgeous it once was. The iron tower on the west side was built in 963 A. D. later it was crushed into halves because of the collapse of the hall.

 

《导游实训教材》(Timwu 等编)


TAG: 导游 光孝寺

 

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