潮州开元寺——岭南名胜中英文导游

上一篇 / 下一篇  2011-01-22 13:57:16 / 个人分类:教师手记

岭南名胜中英文导游(12)

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

 

潮州开元寺

Kaiyuan Temple 

[简介]

    开元寺位于潮州市区开元路。据记载:开元寺的前身是创建于隋唐之际的荔峰寺。唐朝开元二十六年(738年),唐玄宗为庆祝自己的生日,下令全国81州郡各选一大寺,以其年号为名,潮州就把“荔峰寺”改名为“开元寺”。现在开元寺的占地面积约为1、7万平方米,是一座宫殿式四合院建筑。开元寺是广东四大名寺之一,是粤东地区规模最大的古刹,2001年7月被国务院定位全国重点文物保护单位。开元寺的主要建筑分布在寺院的中轴线上,由南北依次为金刚殿、天王殿、大雄宝殿、藏经殿。在中轴线的东西两侧分别是地藏阁和观音阁。

[Introduction]

    Kaiyuan Temple is located on Kaiyuan Road ,Chaozhou city .It is recorded that Kaiyuan Temple are formerly called Lifeng Temple ,constructed during Sui and Tang dynasties .In the 26th year of Kaiyuan , Tang dynasty (738 A. D.) ,to celebrate his birthday ,emperor Xuanzong ordered that each of the 81states and counties in the country should choose a big temple to be named after his reign title ,Kaiyuan ,so Lifeng Temple in Chaozhou was renamed Kaiyuan Temple.

Kaiyuan temple is a quadrangle in palace style, currently covering an area of 17,000 square meters .as one of the four most famous temples in Guangzhou province and the largest of its kind in east Guangdong reign, Kaiyuan temple was listed as the sky cultural relic protection units by the state council in July, 2001.The main construction of Kaiyuan temple is laid out along the axis line. There are from south to north the Jingang(Saroyan) hall ,hall of heavenly king, Daxiong Bao Dian (mahavira hall) and scripture house .To the east and west of the axis line lie the pavilion of guardian deity of children (ksitigarbha) and kwan-yin pavilion respectively .

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

 

[金刚殿]

    金刚殿建于明朝,殿内供奉着两大金刚,他们是寺院的守护神,民间称之为“哼哈二将”。其中一位叫做密迹金刚。传说,释迦牟尼佛外出传法时,常有五百金刚随行护卫,密令金刚就是这五百金刚卫队的队长,密令金刚对面的是那罗延天,传说他是古印度的大力神。开元寺的金刚都是闭口端坐,手拿金刚圈。

[Jingang Hall]

    Jingang Hall was built in Ming dynasty .There are tow Jingangs in the hall and they are it’s guardian spirits .They called as “Heng” and  “Ha” generals by the folk. One of them is Miji (traceless) Jingang .According to legend, Sakyamuni used to have an armed escort of 500 Jingangs when he went out to preach, and Miji Jingang served as the captain of the guard .Opposite of Miji Jingang is Naroyan, he is said to be the most powerful spirit in ancient India .The jingang statues in Kaiyuan temple are all sitting up with months shut and Jing gang rings in hands.

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

[天王殿]

    天王殿建于宋朝,是我国仅存的宋代单檐歇山顶建筑,在建筑上具有极高的价值。天王殿在建筑上有三个特点:第一,整座建筑有32根柱子,这些柱子都是木石结合,下端为石柱,上端为木柱,前排柱子与后排柱子式样有所不同。第二,天王殿东西两侧的山墙没有用石柱而是用砖砌,整个屋顶的重量由两侧山墙承载,这和我国传统的用柱来承载屋顶的重量的做法有所不同。第三,在柱子上端为层叠的斗拱连接屋顶,从下往上望,这些斗拱好像盛开的莲花,在民间把这些斗拱叫做“莲花托”。在天王殿内正上方一块牌匾上面写着“开元镇国禅寺”六个子,“镇国”两字不是一般寺庙可用的。开元寺之所以可以用“镇国”两字,是因为得到了朝廷的批准。在天王殿正中间供奉是的是弥勒佛。据佛经说,弥勒佛是未来世的佛祖,是现在世佛租释迦牟尼在未来世的接班人。开元寺天王殿供奉的是弥勒佛的化身像,即“大肚弥勒佛”。

[Hall of Heavenly King]

    Built in Song Dynasty, the Hall of Heavenly King in the only existing Xieshan -styled-roof structure left over from the Song Dynasty and so is highly valued in architecture. This hall has three characteristics: Firstly, there are 32 pillars, all wood-stone combined, with wood of the upper part and stone of the lower end. The pillars in the front are somewhat different from those in the back. Secondly, there is no pillars at all in both the east and west gables, only brick walls to support the housetop. This is different from the traditional way of using pillars to bear the weight. Thirdly, there is a cascade of arches on the upper pillars to join the roof. Looked from below, the arches seem blooming lotus flowers; hence they’ve got the name of “Lotus Torus” among the folk.

Inside the Hall of Heavenly King, there’s a tablet plaque in the upper middle with characters: “Kaiyuan Country Pacifying Buddhist Temple”. And the two characters” Country Pacifying” cannot be freely used if without the permission by the court.Maitreya Buddha is in the middle of the Hall. He is said by Buddhist sutra to be the aftertime Buddha, the successor of now time Buddha Sakyamuni. The statue here is his incarnation characterized by his big belly, i.e. the “Big Belly Maitreya”.On the east and west sides are the four Heavenly Kings. The sculptures here differs from those in other temples: they all sit square, without one leg lift up as they generally do in other temples, because this is a “Country Pacifying Buddhist Temple”.

Behind Maitreya Buddha is Weiyou Bodhisattva facing Daxiong Bao Dian (Mahavira Hall). It is said that each of the four Heavenly Kings has eight generals; Weituo is the most important one for his protection of Buddhism among the thirty-two and receives the decrees from the Buddha directly.

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

 

[中庭]

    在天王殿北面是开元寺的中庭,即大雄宝殿前的广场。中庭的南边有两株菩提树,菩提在印度语的意思是“智慧”,因此菩提树也叫“智慧树”。传说,释迦牟尼是在菩提树下打坐,苦思冥想了7日7夜,终于大彻大悟成佛的。

在中庭的东西两侧有4座方形的石塔,这种形式的塔叫做“阿育王式塔”。在中庭北端大雄宝殿前有两座石经幢。据考证,这两座经幢是唐朝建寺时的原物,也是潮洲现存最早的石雕作品。

[The Countyard]

    To the north of the Hall of Heavenly King is a courtyard, this is, the open area in front of Daxiong Bao Dian (Mahavia Hall). On the south of the courtyard are two bo-dhi trees. Bo-dhi tree is also called tree of wisdom, since bo-dhi means wisdom in Sanskirt. Legend has it was just under the bo-dhi tree that Sakyamuni attained his great awakening after practicing meditation for 7 days and nights, and became Buddha.On the west and east sides are 4 quadrate stone pagodas in Asoka style. On the north side of the courtyard are 2 stone sutra pillars. They have been proved to be the original in Tang Dynasty when the temple was founded and also the oldest stone sculpture in Chaozhou.

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

 

[大雄宝殿]

    在中庭北面是开元寺的核心建筑大雄宝殿。现在的大雄宝殿为清光绪年间重修的建筑。在大雄宝殿正中供奉的是佛教的教主释迦牟尼佛,我们中国人一般都把他叫做“如来佛”,释迦牟尼是佛教的创始人。在释迦牟佛东边的是药师佛,据说,众生只要诚心诵念他的佛号就能够消灾去病!在释迦佛西边的阿弥陀佛,他是西方极乐世界的教主,在中国佛教徒大多数都希望来世能够降生在西方极乐世界。在大雄宝殿东西两侧供奉的是十八罗汉。佛经上经,这些人已永远不再生死轮回,并留在人间替佛祖弘扬佛法。

[Sakyamuni Hall]

    To the north of the courtyard lies the kernel structure-Daxiong Bao Dian (Sakyamuni Hall). It was rebuilt in Guangxu reign period, Qing Dynasty.

In the middle of the Daxiong Bao Dian is the statue of Sakyamuni, founder of Buddhism. We Chinese also call him Rulai Buddha.On the east side of Sakyamuni is apothecary Buddha. It is said that people can eliminate their personal misfortune and illness if they piously recite his Buddhist name over and over again. On the west side is Amitabha, the hierarch of the Pure Land in the west. Most Buddhists in China hope to have their afterlife in the Pure Land.On the west and east sides of the Daxiong Bao Dian are the 18 arhats. According to sutra, they will never have their afterlife and remain in the earthly world to preach for the Buddha.

 

[藏经楼]

    在大雄宝殿北面是开元寺的藏经楼,这里珍藏着开元寺1000多年来收藏的众多珍贵的文物。其中有开元寺的镇寺之宝—清朝乾隆皇帝钦赐给潮洲开元寺的雍正版《大藏经》。这部《大藏经》刻于清朝雍正十三年(1753年),当时共刻印了10部,先后颁赐给全国十大寺院收藏,全书共7246卷,用汉、满、藏、蒙四种文字刊行。开元寺能够成为其中的一个收藏寺院,可见开元寺在中国各佛寺中的地位。

[Scripture House]

    To the north of Daxiong Bao Dian is the Scripture House, keeping a lot of cultural relics of the temple collected for more that 1000 years. Among then the most precious is Dazangjing (Tripitaka) specially given to Kaiyuan Temple by Qianlong emperor? It is an edition of the 13th year of Yongzheng reign period, Qing Dynasty (1753A. D.). There are total 7246 volumes for each of the 10 sets of Dazangjing (Tripitaka) printed in four languages: Chinese, Manchu, Tibetan and Mongolian and granted to 10 big temples nationwide. The importance of Kaiyuan Temple in China’s Buddhist temples is obvious for the fact that it is one of the temples to have the storage of Dazangjing (Tripitaka).

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)

 

[地藏阁]

    地藏阁中供奉的是地藏菩提和十大阎王。正面端坐的就是地藏菩提,传说他曾经为救其母脱离地狱之苦发下誓愿:“众生度尽,方证菩提,地狱未空,誓不成佛。”在地藏阁左右两侧分别是十大阎罗是地狱的统治者。

[Pavilion of the God Earth]

    Here enshrined in this hall are the God of Earth and the ten Yamas who are said to be the rulers of the Hell. The one sitting in the middle is the God of Earth .Legend has it that, in order to rescue his mother from the Hell, he had made a vow that he would not become a Buddha until all people are saved from the Hell. On both sides are the 10 Yamas.

 

[观音阁]

    观音阁内供奉的是观世音菩萨。由于观世音能救苦救难,在这个充满苦难的人世间,得到众生的爱戴,有众多的信众。我们现看到的观音像是一位慈祥端庄的妇女,在中国的观世音大多都是这种形象。在观音阁内左右两侧供奉的是18尊观世音的化身像。现在,在观音隔内供奉观音18化身像的在全国可能就只有开元寺一家了!这也是开元寺又一个与众不同之处。

[Kwan-yin Pavilion]

    Here is the stature of Kwan-yin, the Goddess of Mercy. In this miserable earthly world, Kwan-yin is widely respected and has a large number of believers. From the stature here we can see Kwan-yin is a woman, kind and se-date, just like the image in other places of China.On both sides of the pavilion are 18 different statures of Kwan-yin. That in a Kwan-yin Pavilion her 18 different statues are on shrine is, perhaps, no-where but Kaiyuan. This is another why Kaiyuan Temple is different from others.

 

《导游实训教材》(Timwu 等编)

 

潮州开元寺鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(12)


TAG: 开元寺 潮州

 

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