孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游

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岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

 

孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

孙中山翠亨村故居

Former Residence of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

 

[孙中山简介]

    孙中山,名文,是中国资产阶级民主革命的先行者,十九世纪末至二十世纪初,他领导中国人民推翻了满清王朝,结束了中国几千年的封建帝制,建立了亚洲第一个共和国中华民国,而他成为了中华民国第一任大总统。所以,孙中山被誉为中国的共和国之父,也是亚洲的共和国之父。

    中山故居位于中山市东南的翠亨村,距市中心约29公里。1866年11月12日,孙中山就诞生在这个小村庄的一个农民家庭里;他的少年时代就在这里度过。孙中山的父亲是一个普通的农民;由于家境贫寒,孙中山的大哥在他5岁时就去了檀香山谋生。孙中山从小就受西方民主思想的影响,他12岁时随哥哥到了檀香山,在那里的教会学校读书;回国后,他进入香港西医书院学习,1892年毕业后在澳门、广州行医。这个时期,中国正处在内忧外患的民族危机。1894年,日本军国主义向中国发动了甲午战争,腐败无能的清政府与日本签订了丧权辱国的马关条约,向日本割让台湾、开放通商口岸、赔偿日本战争损失…… 孙中山深深地感到,要拯救中国就必须推翻满清的统治,吸收西方的先进思想,建立共和国于是毅然走上了反清的革命道路。

[About Sun Yat-sen]

    Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the great forerunner of the Chinese bourgeois democratic revolution. He led the Chinese people in the struggle against the Qing Dynasty ad successfully overthrew the feudal autocratic monarchy that had been practiced in China for several thousand years and he became the first president of the first republic in Asia, the Republic of China. Therefore, he was reputed as “father of the Republic of China” and father of the republics in Asia.

    Sun Yat-sen’s former residence is situated in Cuiheng Village, 29 kilometers to the southeast of the present-day Zhongshan City proper. He was born here on November 12, 1866 and spent his childhood in the village. Because his father was an ordinary farmer and the family was poor, his elder brother had to go to Honolulu to seek a living when he was 5 years old. At the age of 12, he followed his elder brother to Honolulu and studied there in a missionary school. Later he came back to Hong Kong to study in a college of Western medicine and, after graduation in 1892, practiced medicine in Macao and Guangzhou. At that time, China was suffering domestic troubles and foreign invasion. In 1894, the Japanese militarists launched a war to annex Korea and invade China. The corrupt and incompetent Qing government signed the humiliating Maguan Treaty with the Japanese, providing that China should cede Taiwan, open trading ports and pay war reparations to the war-maker. This had greatly around Sun Yat-sen’s patriotic indignation. He decided that the Qing Dynasty was rotten to the core and must be overthrown and replaced by a democratic republic, and therefore he resolutely plunged into the struggle against the Qing government.

 

 孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

[孙中山故居]

    这一座红色的两层楼房就是孙中山的故居;建于1892年,是孙中山的哥哥从夏威夷寄钱回来由孙中山亲自设计并主持兴建的。这栋楼房的特点是:1.中西合璧;外表仿西方建筑,内部结构和陈设则是当地的传统形式。2.坐向与众不同;翠亨村内所有其它民居都是坐西朝东,只有这栋楼房是坐东朝西的。3.窗多门多;便于通风采光和各处相连。

    门口:门口的对联(一椽得所,五桂安居)是孙中山亲笔写的。

    院内:这棵酸子树是孙中山于1883年从檀香山带回来种植的;1931年被台风刮倒,但至今仍然枝叶繁茂,开花结果。

    水井:这口水井旁边原有一间4米宽、8米长的房子;孙中山就诞生在那所房子里,后来建这座房时拆掉了。现在翠亨村居民展览区有一间旧房子就是模拟孙家拆掉的那间房,让人们了解孙中山出生前后孙家的生活状况。

    一楼正厅:这是客厅。正面悬挂的孙中山画像是他1912年担任中华民国临时大总统时的形象。两边墙上挂的是他父母的画像。上面神龛是供奉祖先的神位,神龛后面是孙中山母亲的卧室。

[Sun Yat-sen’s Former Residence]

    This two-storied red building is the former residence of Sun Yat-sen. It was built in 1892 with the money remitted from Hawaii by his elder brother and was designed personally by Sun Yat-sen himself. The distinguishing features of this building are: First, it is a combined structure of Chinese and Western architectural elements. While it looks like a Western-style. structure from the outside, its interior is constructed and decorated in the traditional Chinese style. Second, it faces west, whereas all other houses in the village face east. Third, it is designed into having many doors and windows, which is good for ventilation, lighting and linking up different parts of the building.

    At the Gate:The couplet on both sides of the gate was written by Sun Yat-sen. In English it means: One rather supports my dwelling house. The foot of the Five Osmanthus Hill is where I reside.

    In the Courtyard:This is a tamarind tree that was brought back from Honolulu and plated here personally by Sun Yat-sen, it was blown down by typhoon in 1993 but now it is still a mass of branches and leaves.

    By the side of the well in the courtyard there used to be a house, 4 meters broad and 8 meters long, in which Sun Yat-sen was born. It was pulled down when the new house was built. Now in the Country House Exhibition Area, another old house is arranged to serve as its imitation so that visitors may get an idea of the Sun family’s living conditions before the new house was set up.

    In the Sitting-Room:This is the place where the Sun family received guests. The picture in the middle is Sun Yat-sen’s image in 1912 when he was elected interim president of the Republic of China. The pictures on the side walls are his parents. The niche up there is a shrine for worshiping ancestors and behind it on the other side is the bedroom for Sun Yat-sen’s mother.

 

 孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

    孙眉卧室:这是孙中山的大哥孙眉的卧室。孙眉于1871年去檀香山谋生,在那里开荒种地,逐渐致富,后来又变卖产业,倾力支持孙中山的革命活动。1912年孙中山在南京就任临时大总统时,有人曾极力推荐孙眉任广东都督,但孙中山坚反对。孙眉后来移居澳门,1915年去世。

    楼上孙中山的书房:这是孙中山17岁时的照片,是至今所发现的孙中山最早的照片。孙中山在广州、澳门行医期间经常回乡,每次回来都在这里为父亲治病。

    返回楼下:这是孙中山母亲的卧室。这间房在神的后面,当地人叫神龛后房;按当地传统,是给家庭中辈分最高的长者居住的。

    孙中山卧室:这是孙中山的卧室。1892年至1895年期间,孙中山经常住在这里。1912年5月,孙中山辞去了临时大总统职务后回到阔别17年的家乡,在此住了三天;后一直忙于国事,再也没有机会回来。

    Sun Mei’s Bedroom:This is the bedroom for Sun Mei, Sun Yat-sen’s elder brother. Sun Mei went to Honolulu in 1871 and gradually amassed a considerable fortune by opening up wasteland for farming. But, later on he sold off most of his property recommended Sun Mei as the governor of Guangdong Province, but Sun Yat-sen was very much opposed to the proposal. Sun Mei moved to Macao afterwards and died in 1915.

    Upstairs in Sun Yat-sen’s Study:This is Sun Yat-sen’s study. This photograph of Sun Yat-sen’s was taken at the age of 17 and is the youngest among all his photos that have ever been discovered. At the time when Sun Yat-sen was practicing medicine in Guangzhou and Macao, he often returned to his home village and every time he was back he would give medical treatments to his fellow villages in this room.

    Downstairs to the Bedroom for Sun Yat-sen’s mother:This room, located just behind the ancestral shrine in the sitting-room, is the bedroom for Sun Yat-sen’s mother. It is the local tradition that the room behind the ancestral shrine should be used by people of the eldest generation in the family.

    Sun Yat-sen’s Bedroom:This is Sun Yat-sen’s bedroom where he slept in the years between 1892 and 1895. In May 1912, after he resigned his position as interim president, Sun Yat-sen came back to his home village he had parted for 17 years and slept in this room for 3 nights. Since then he had been too busy with state affairs to return again.

 

 孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

[孙中山纪念堂]

    这座孙中山纪念堂大楼于1999年落成。它的首层是孙中山生平史绩陈列室,包括四个部分:第一部分介绍孙中山家乡的情况和孙中山的童年生活;第二部分介绍孙中山创立共和国的奋斗过程;第三部分介绍共和国建立后孙中山为捍卫共和制度的奋斗过程;第四部分介绍孙中山的思想理论和他所描绘的国家经济建设的宏伟蓝图。

二楼展厅介绍的是孙中山的亲属和后裔的情况,反映了孙中山的亲属和后裔对其革命事业的巨大的支持、贡献和牺牲,使人们加深对孙中山这一历史伟人的了解。

[The Sun Yat-sen Memorial Exhibition Hall]

    This exhibition hall was built in 1999. The exhibits on display on the first floor describe the life stories of Sun Yat-sen, which are divided into four parts; Sun Yat-sen’s home village and his childhood, his efforts to establish the Republic of China, his struggle in safeguarding the republican system after the founding of the republic and his theoretical ideology and his blueprint for developing the country’s economy.

    The second floor is dedicated to Sun Yat-sen’s relatives and descendants. It presents the facts of their tremendous support, contributions and sacrifice to Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary cause, so as to help people get a better understanding of this great man.

(《导游实训教程》 Timwu 等编)

 

 孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)

 

    江湖侠客微博:广东中山市被正式英译成“ZHongshan City”,实乃不伦不类。本人郑重向中山市政府及其外事办建议:中山市名改译为“Sun Yat-sen Memorial City”,汉语意思“孙逸仙纪念市”,或者“中山纪念市”。今年是辛亥革命100年,是时候了。

 

    (弦翻塞外:Sun Yatsen City足矣。)

    (蓝水河谷:中山市之所以称为中山,并不是因为有个人叫孙中山吧。)

    (StephenHoV:中山以前叫香山市,因境内五桂山多奇花异卉而得名,1925年国父逝世后,为了纪念国父,易名中山市。)

 

    江湖侠客微博:中山市原名香山县,为纪念伟大的革命先行者孙中山,改名中山县,后升级为地级市。人所周知。

    中山是“号”。孙文留学东洋日本时起的。后来似乎他自己也不喜欢,正式场合总是自称“孙文”。反倒是后人叫他中山,大陆年轻人很多都忘记有“孙逸仙”的名字了。可悲啊,孙文!

    大陆的“中山大学”曾被英译成“Zhongshan University”,是一个翻译界与海内外华人都不可原谅的天大错误!好在现已改为“Sun Yat-sen University”,而台湾的“国立中山大学”则在前面加上National。

 

 

孙中山翠亨村故居:岭南名胜中英文导游(17)


TAG: 孙中山

 

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