中山纪念堂——岭南名胜中英文导游

上一篇 / 下一篇  2011-03-12 15:41:58 / 个人分类:教师手记

岭南名胜中英文导游(18)

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)

 

中山纪念堂

Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall

 

    孙中山先生是中国伟大的资产阶级民主革命的先行者,1866年11月12日出生于广东香山县(即今中山市)翠亨村。他12 岁时随兄去美国夏威夷读书,后回香港西医学堂学医,学成后在广州和澳门行医。孙中山童年时期起就受西方民主思想的影响,曾向清朝统治者提出革新政治的主张;但帝国主义列强对中国的侵略和清政府的腐败无能是他认识到,要振兴中华就必须推翻满清皇朝,建立民国。

    Our next destination is the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. The Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, as its name suggests, is a structure built in honor of a person by the name of Sun Yat-sen. Do you who Sun Yat-sen is?

    Sun Yat-sen was the forerunner of the Chinese bourgeois democratic revolution. He was born on November 12, 1866 in a farmer’s family in the Cuiheng Village in Xiangshan County (the present-day Zhonghan city) in Guangdong Province. At the age of 12, he went to Honolulu, where his elder brother sent him to a missionary school. Later, he came back to Hong Kong to study in a college of western medicine and, after graduation, practiced medicine in Guangzhou and Macao.  so ever since he was a child , he had been influenced by the western ideas of Christianity and democracy and this had helped him make up his mind to cure the ills of the old feudal China and turn it into a democratic and strong nation . At first, he had illusions about the Qing government and hoped to save this moribund regime through reforms .But ,China’s defeats by foreign invaders, and the corruption and incompetence of the Qing government intensified his patriotic indignation .he decided that the Qing court was rotten to the core and must be overthrown and replaced by a democratic republic.                                                            

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)

 

    1894年,孙中山在美国檀香山组建了中国最早的资产阶级革命团体兴中会;次年春天,在广州发动了旨在推翻满清皇朝的第一次武装起义,但起义失败了。1905年,他又在日本成立了中国第一个革命政党同盟会(即国民党的前身),致力于推翻清朝的革命斗争,并最终于1911年发动的武昌起义中取得成功,建立了中华民国,孙中山被推选为临时大总统。但是,革命成果不久就被军阀袁世凯窃取;于是,孙中山于1920年回到广州,次年在广州成立了南方革命政府,他出任非常大总统。1925年12月,孙中山先生在北京病逝,葬于南京中山陵。

    So, in 1894, together with some twenty Chinese shop-keepers and farm-owners in Honolulu, he established the first Chinese bourgeois revolutionary organization –the society for the revival of china (the Xing Zhong Hui ). In the following spring, he returned to Hong Kong and staged the first armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou; but it ended in failure. Then, in 1905, he went to Japan, where he founded China’s first politic party called “china revolutionary league” (the Tong Meng Hui), which later developed into the nationalist party (the Kuomintang). Since then he had made successive attempts to topple the Qing regime and finally succeeded in the Wuchang uprising that broke out in October 1911.The Qing regime was overthrown and he was elected the provisional president of the interim government of the Republic of China in Nanjing. This political power, however, was soon taken over by the warlords. Then, in 1920, Sun Yat-sen came back to Guangzhou to set up new government called the South Revolutionary Government. In 1921, he proclaimed his extraordinary presidency in Guangzhou. In 1925, he died of illness in Beijing and was buried later in Nanjing.

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)

 

    孙中山为中国的民主革命奋斗终生,他所领导的辛亥革命推翻了在中国存在了几千年的封建帝制;广州人民为了纪念他的功绩在当年南方革命政府总统府所在地建造了这座中山纪念堂。原总统府在1921年被叛变的广东军阀陈烔明烧毁。

    Sun Yat-sen had devoted all his life to the cause of the Chinese democratic revolution, and the 1911 revolution he led had put an end to the feudal monarchy that had existed in China for several thousand years. To commemorate his great contributions to the Chinese revolution, people of Guangzhou had this memorial hall built in 1929-1931 at the original site of the former presidential house of the South Revolutionary Government, which was burned down in 1922 by a traitor warlord, Chen Jiongming by name.

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)

 

    中山纪念堂于1931年10 月建成。它是一座八角形的宫殿式钢筋混凝土建筑;在外形上具有中国传统建筑艺术风格,在结构上则采用了当时最新的建筑技术。纪念堂的主体建筑搞58米,建造面积1.2万平方米。大堂前面竖立着孙中山先生的铜像,高5.5米,总量3.9吨。大堂面前檐下悬挂着孙中山先生的名言:天下为公。大堂里面是一个能容纳3238名观众的大会堂;会堂内看不到一根支撑柱子,整个大屋顶由4个大跨度的大型钢桁架支撑,8根柱子都巧妙隐藏在墙内。观众坐在大堂内任何一个座位都不会被柱子遮挡视线;而且,堂内没有回音,任何位置都能清晰地听到舞台上的音响。这种结构,充分体现建筑设计师对声学和力学的巧妙运用。中山纪念堂至今仍是广州举行大型集会和文艺演出的主要场所之一。

    The Sun Yat-sen memorial hall is an octagonal palace-like reinforced concrete structure, 58 meters high with a floor space of 12 thousand square meters. It looks like a traditional Chinese palace in appearance but was constructed with modern architectural technique. In front of the hall stands a bronze statue of Sun Yat-sen, which is 5.5meters high and weigh 3.9 tons. Up on the fade below one of the eaves is written Sun Yat-sen’s motto, meaning “China belongs to the people” in English (or literarily “let public spiritedness rule under the sky”). Inside the building is a conference hall with seating capacity of 3,238 people. And, thanks to the ingenious designing of the architect, the acoustics of the hall are excellent and there is no pillar to obstruct spectators’ view because the eight pillars sustaining the four long-spanned steel trusses supporting the huge domed roof are hidden in the walls. Today, the Sun Yat–sen Memorial Hall is one the main places for mass meetings or theatrical performances in Guangzhou.

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)

 

    大堂后东西两侧各建有一座两层的配楼,后院内种植者70多种树木和花卉,其中一棵木棉树已有300多年的历史;两侧还有两棵白玉兰树,均有70多年的树龄,其直径达90厘米,树阴覆盖面超过200平方米,是广州最大的白兰树。

    At the back of the hall, there is a 2-storied building on each side .In the backyard are planted over 70 species of trees and flowers .Among them a kapok tree is already over 70 years old .These tow magnolia trees are the oldest magnolia trees in Guangzhou and have grown up to 90 centimeters in diameter, each giving a shade of over 200 square meters.

 

    中山纪念堂由中国近代杰出的建筑师吕彦直先生设计。吕彦直出生在天津,北京清华大学毕业,后赴美国康奈尔大学学习建筑,1929年在纪念堂落成之前因患肺癌病逝,时年仅36岁。

    The magnificent Sun Yat-sen memorial hall was designed by a young Chinese architect, by the name of Lu yanzhi, who was born in Tianjin, graduated from the Qinghua university in Beijing and later studied architecture in the Cornell university in the USA .He died of lung cancer in 1929, at the age of 36, before the construction of the hall was completed.

(《导游实训教程》 Timwu 等编)

 

中山纪念堂鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(18)


TAG: 纪念堂 中山

 

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