珠海圆明新园——岭南名胜中英文导游

上一篇 / 下一篇  2011-04-18 10:13:47 / 个人分类:教师手记

岭南名胜中英文导游(19)

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

珠海圆明新园

The New Yuanmingyuan Palace

 

[圆明新园和圆明园简介]

    珠海的圆明新园于1997年建成,是仿清代圆明园建筑的旅游景区,面积1.39平方公里,约为清代北京圆明园面积的三分之一。

    清代圆明园位于北京西郊还定区,始建于康熙四十八年(1709),是经清朝六位皇帝共151年的时间,集全国的人力、财力和智慧建成的清代皇家园林。圆明园内有中外名胜40多景,建筑物145处;除中国传统的庭园建筑外,还有一处西洋风格的建筑群。圆明园是我国园林建筑的瑰宝。法国人文豪雨果曾说:“在世界的一偶,存在着人类的一大奇迹,这个奇迹就是圆明园……一个近乎超人的民族,所能幻想到的一切都汇集于圆明园。”但是,1860年英法联军和1990年八国联军侵略北京时,不但把园内的珍宝劫掠一空,而且园内建筑也遭联军纵火焚毁,今仅存残迹。

[Introduction to the original and the New Yuanmingyuan Palaces]

    The New Yuanmingyuan Palace in Zhuhai was built in 1997 with an area of 1.39 sq. km, about one third of the original Qing imperial Yuanmingyuan Palace in Beijing.

The original Yuanmingyuan Palace was located in the western suburb of Beijing. The construction of the palace started in 1709 and eventually completed after 151 years. It saw six emperors and was a demonstration of national manpower, economic prosperity and the wisdom of Chinese people. There you could appreciate more than 40 domestic and foreign scenic spots and 145 buildings, most of which were of traditional courtyard style. except one which was of western style. It was a treasure of Chinese garden-type building. Hugo, the celebrated French literary giant, sang high praise of the Palace, “In a corner of the world there existed a man-made miracle –the Winter Palace…The Winter Palace, indeed, was the crystallization of all of the art that an almost superman race could have fancied.” However, all the treasures were looted and the buildings were ruined in fires set by the Allied Anglo-French Forces in 1860 and the Eight-power Allied Forces in 1990 respectively. So now, at the site, only remnants could be spotted.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[园外广场—华表]

    这两根大石柱叫华表。古代皇家宫殿前均立华表;柱身盘龙,柱顶蹲兽,既是装饰也是尊贵的象征。

[The Ornamental Columns in front of the Palace]

    These two stone columns are called “huabiao”, which were usually erected in front of ancient imperial palace. Dragons coil the pillars, and on the tops stand beasts. The pillars, apart from serving decorative purposes, are a symbol of nobility as well.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[大宫门]

    这座歇山顶黄色琉璃瓦是圆明新园的大宫门。正中“圆明新园”四个字是我国著名书法家启功先生所题写。

[The Main Gate]

    This structure with yellow glazed tiles is the main gate to the palace. The four Chinese characters “The New Yuanmingyuan” were written by Qi Gong. a modern famous calligrapher.

 

[正大光明殿]

    这座建筑叫正大光明殿。正大光明殿是清朝皇帝处理政务的地方,清朝自雍正至道光历代皇帝生日受贺及其他喜庆活动都在此殿举行。殿内正上方牌匾上“勤政亲民”四个字是康熙皇帝的遗训:意思是皇帝要勤政,不能怠政;要亲近贤臣,不要亲近小人。殿内的布局及摆设如正中的皇帝宝座,两边的九龙屏风,天花上的蟠龙藻井等均与皇宫内的太和殿相同。

[The Hall of Openness and Brightness]

    This hall is the palace where emperors handled government affairs. From Emperor Yongzheng to Emperor Daoguang, emperors received their birthday greetings and held other celebrations in this hall. Up in the middle of the hall is hung with a plaque bearing the teachings of Emperor Kangxi: Be diligent in administration and stay close to virtuous officials. The layout and furnishing of the hall are similar to the Hall of Supreme Harmony: the crown chair at the very center, on its sides two nine-dragon screens, the winding dragons and caisson ceiling patterns etc.

 

[东西配殿]

    西配殿内有北京圆明园全景鸟瞰图和圆明园的全景模型,从中人们可以对圆明园的布局有一个整体的了解。东西配殿是圆明园史料馆,成陈列着有关圆明园的图片,实物及文字资料,记录了圆明园的兴衰。

[The East and West Side Halls]

    In the two side-halls are displayed the bird’s-eye view map of the Beijing Yuanmingyuan Palace and the full-view model of the New Yuanmingyuan Palace, from which people can get a overall understanding of the layout of Yuanmingyuan Palace. In the East Side Hall are displayed pictures, articles and documents about the Palace.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[圆明园殿]

    这个叫圆明园殿。这里陈列的是清朝八旗军的编制及武器装备。1790年北京圆明园兴建时,康熙皇帝曾题写了“圆明园”三字,就挂在圆明园殿上。

[The Hall of Yuanmingyuan]

    This hall is called Yuanmingyuan Hall. It exhibits the establishment of the Eight Banners Army and their weapons. The three Chinese characters, meaning “Yuanmingyuan Palace” were written by Emperor Kangxi in 1709 when the palace was being built.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[奉三无私殿]

    第二进殿叫“奉三无私”殿。此殿的名字取自孔子《礼记》中的一段话:“天无私覆,地无私载,日月无私照”;意思是:天、地、日月都无私地福佑着苍生,为政者也应该为天下百姓着想,为天下百姓造福。殿内右边展示的是慈禧太后垂帘听政的场景。慈禧是清朝末期咸丰皇帝的妃子,是一个野心很大又精于权术的女人。1861年咸丰帝死后,她册立自己年仅6岁的儿子为皇帝(同治帝),同治帝19岁早亡后,她又立其胞妹年仅5岁的儿子为光绪帝。每当小皇帝坐朝时,她都要坐在帘子后面听政;所以,她实际上是同治和光绪两朝的女皇帝,统治大清江山长达48年。这个小皇帝就是慈禧的儿子同治帝,小皇帝后右边的女人就是慈禧太后,左边的是东宫慈安太后,跪在地上的大臣是皇帝的叔父恭亲王奕。他通英语,专门负责外交事务。

[The Hall of Three Selflessnesses]

    The second row hall is called “The Hall of the Three Selflessnesss”. Its name is taken from a statement in The Book of Rites by Confucius, “The heaven covers selflessly; the earth supports selflessly; the sun and the moon shine selflessly”, which implies that rulers should consider the welfare of the populace the way the heaven, the earth the sun and the moon do.

On the right side of the hall is exhibited the scene of Empress Dowager Cixi handing state affairs behind a curtain. Cixi, a politically ambitious and trickish concubine of Emperor Xianfeng, appointed her six-year-old son as Emperor Tongzhi after her husband deceased in 1861. When Tongzhi died at an immature age of 19, she appointed the five-year-old son of her younger sister as Emperor Guangxu. When the two young emperors gave audiences to officials, she would supervise behind a curtain, which made her the actual empress for 48 years. Here this young emperor is Cixi’ son, Tongzhi. The woman behind him on the right side is Empress Cixi, and on the left is Empress Ci’an. The man kneeling on the ground is the emperor’s uncle Yixin, who had a good command of English and was in charge of foreign affairs.

 

[九州清晏殿]

    第三进殿叫“九州清晏殿”,这里展出的是皇帝用膳和读书的情景。

[The Hall of National Peace]

    The hall in the third row is called “National Peace”. It exhibits the scene of emperor dining and reading.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[江南园林建筑区]

    清代圆明园内有很多仿江南美景的景点。据说当年乾隆皇帝六下江南时,对江南的湖光山色十分喜爱,便命人仿建于圆明园中。圆明园内福海湖周围的景点就是仿圆明园内的部分景点而建的。游客通过游览这些景点,可以领略当年圆明园的盛况。

[The Scenic Area of South China Gardens]

    In the original Yuanmingyuan Palace there were many scenic spots in imitation of the scenery in South China. According to legend, Emperor Qianlong loved the landscape in the south so much that he went on an inspection tour six times and that he ordered the construction of some scenic spots in imitation. The scenic spots around Fuhai Lake in the New Yuanmingyuan Palace are modeled after them. Here visitors can capture some of the original beauty.

 

[西洋楼景区]

    清代圆明园有一座欧式园林,是由意大利传教士郎世宁和法国人蒋友仁设计监造的,由中国工匠建造的。圆明园的西洋楼景区时北京仿圆明园的西洋景区建造的。

    顺便介绍一下清代圆明园西洋景区的设计者郎世宁。郎世宁于1715年在他27岁时作为天主教传教士来到中国传教。由于他精于西洋画技,到中国后他把西洋画融入中国画,成为了独树一帜的画家,受到了重视西洋画技的康熙皇帝的礼遇,后于雍正,乾隆两朝供奉“内廷”职,成为清朝的宫廷画师,留下很多名作。郎世宁于1766年在北京去世,时年78岁,他去世后,乾隆皇帝特下旨追赐他侍郎,并赏银300两为其料理后事,把他安葬在北京阜成门外的外国传教士墓地内。

[The Scenic Area of Western-style. Building]

    In the original Yuanmingyuan Palace there was a European-style. garden, which was designed by an Italian missionary Giuseppe Castiglione and a Frenchman R. Michel Benoist, and was built by Chinese craftsman under their supervision.

    Now let’s say something about the designer, Guiseppe Castiglione. He came to China as a Catholic missionary in 1715 at his age of 27. A master hand at western painting techniques, he succeeded in introducing them to Chinese painting and become a distinctive painter. For this reason he was warmly accepted by all the three emperors he served and become a court painter and left behind him many excellent works of art. In 1766 Guiseppe died at a ripe age of 78. Emperor Qianlong conferred an honorary title of vice-minister on him and awarded 300 tales of silver for his funeral. He was buried at a missionary cemetery outside Fucheng Men (Fucheng Gate), Beijing.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

[文艺表演]

    游客在圆明园参观过程中可以观赏到丰富的文艺表演。除白天在不同景点表演的“皇帝登基”,“皇帝招驸马”,“皇帝选妃”等之外。晚上7时30分在中心剧场还有两场大型舞台剧“大清皇朝”和“大清海战”。游客通过观看这些演出,可以进一步加深对清宫文化和清朝历史的了解。

[Performances]

    Various performances are available to all visitors. In the day time different plays about royal life and ceremonies are staged at different scenic sport. At 7:30 every evening there are another two grand-scale ones entitled “The Qing Dynasty Royal Court” and “The Qing Dynasty Marine Wars”. Visitors are expected to get a better understanding of the royal court culture as well as the history of the Dynasty after watching these shows.

 

珠海圆明新园鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(19)

 

(《导游实训教程》Timwu 等编)


TAG: 珠海

 

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