佛山南国陶都——岭南名胜中英文导游

上一篇 / 下一篇  2011-05-12 21:44:47 / 个人分类:教师手记

岭南名胜中英文导游(21)


佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

佛山南国陶都

The Ceramic Capital of the South

 

[概况]

    今天游览的是位于佛山市禅城区石湾街道的南国陶都。佛山,是我国最大的、最重要的陶瓷生产基地。石湾制陶历史源远流长,陶瓷业十分发达,素有“石湾瓦,甲天下”的美誉,正因为有了陶瓷石湾享有了“南国陶都”之美称。石湾艺术陶瓷是中国传统艺术的一朵奇艳,其独特风格以古朴、传神、典雅、浑厚的艺术效果和地方特色而享誉盛名。21世纪的今天,石湾已成为国内建筑卫生陶瓷的重要生产基地。

    Today we are going to visit the Ceramic Capital of the South at Shiwan in Foshan city which is the biggest and the most important ceramic production centre in China. The pottery production in Shiwan has been well developed with a long history and the roof tiles from Shiwan are awarded as the finest under heaven. Hence Shiwan has got a good name of the Ceramic Capital of the South.

The ceramic art of Shiwan is a wonderful work of art in the traditional culture of China. The works in unique styles have enjoyed the great fame for their local colors and artistic effects of simplicity, vividness, elegance and vigor .Today, at the 21st century; Shiwan has become the important production base for the ceramics of architecture and sanitation in China...

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

[新后湾美术陶瓷厂有限公司]

    (石湾公仔博物馆)这里是新石湾美术陶瓷厂,该厂成立于1956年,现已成为石湾陶瓷企业的佼佼者,拥有最强的艺术家队伍,石湾历史上有11位国家级的工艺美术大师,该厂占了9位;有全国著名的陶艺大师刘传,他与天津的“泥人张”(张景祜hù)被誉为中国陶瓷界最杰出的大师;这里有一大批享誉全国的产品,有全石湾最大、最好的石湾公仔展示厅;有中国现存唯一的石湾公仔古灶等等。

    请参观石湾各个时期的陶瓷产品。这几块小小的陶片是见证石湾陶瓷生产的珍贵出土文物。它生产于5000多年前的新石器时期,这说明石湾陶瓷有着悠久的历史。明代开始,佛道思想广为传播,人们对宗族祠堂、庙宇、住宅的建筑装饰要求越来越高,这使石湾的园林陶艺得到了长足的发展。

    解放后,石湾陶瓷的优秀作品层出不穷,其中有昆明世博园的陶砖雕、番禺宝墨园31米长的人物脊、澳大利亚悉尼中国园的双龙壁画等等。

    这件色彩绚丽的“一窑一宝”叫“变釉(you)大碟”,它是典型的窑变作品,是无价之宝。有人问:何谓“一窑一宝”?大家参观陶瓷的生产线后就清楚了。

[The New Shiwan Artistic Ceramic Factory]

    (Shiwan Pottery Figurines Museum)

    The new Shiwan artistic ceramic factory was set up in 1956. And now it has become the most outstanding one in Shiwan ceramics with the strongest troop of artists. There are 11 state-class arts and crafts masters in Shiwan history and 9 of them are from this factory. Among them, Liu chuan, a famous ceramic art master in China in competition with clay figurine Zhang in Tianjin, are both the most outstanding masters in the field of China’s ceramics. Here we have a great amount of famous works, the biggest and the best showroom for ceramic figurines in Shiwan and the ancient kiln which is the only one left in China for baking Shiwan figurines.

    Let’s take a visit the works of Shiwan ceramics in different periods. The small pieces of pottery you have seen here are precious unearthed relics from the New Stone Period 5000years ago, witnessing the long history of Shiwan ceramics. As Buddhism had widely spread out in China since Ming dynasty, people required better architectural decorations for building temples and houses. This has stimulated the development of Shiwan’s ceramic art of gardening.

    After liberation, the excellent words of Shiwan ceramics have emerged endlessly, such as the pottery brick-carvings at Expo Garden in Kunming, the character ridge at Baomo Garden in Panyu and the double dragon fresco at Chinese Garden in Sydney of Australia.

    This colourful and beautiful piece of words is called one kiln one treasure or the crackle glaze. It is an invaluable asset and typical words which the colour changes in the course of firing. Why it’s called one kiln one treasure? Let’s go to visit the process of ceramic production and you’ll know more about it.

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

    (陶瓷生产车间)陶瓷的生产工艺比较复杂,石湾公仔的生产一般经过8大工序:分别是“设计创作”、“制石膏模”、“注浆成型”、“修坯”、“上釉”、“干燥”、“装窑”、“煅烧”。

    这是一条已有400多年历史的古龙窑,叫同庆窑,又叫“同庆灶”。建国初期,石湾一共有107条以柴为燃料的龙窑,至今只剩下南风古灶和同庆灶,而同庆灶是中国现存的还一直使用的唯一生产石湾公仔的古窑。在烧制过程中,窑内温度经常会发生变化,因而发生“窑变”。有时会烧出一些超出想象的,艺术效果极好的产品,这就是产生“一窑一宝”的原因。

    (The Workshop for Making Ceramics)

    The technics for making ceramics are quite complicated. The whole production includes eight stages for making Shiwan ceramic figurines:1、Creating and designing;2、Mould-making;3、Shaping;4、Polishing;5、Painting and glazing;6、Drying;7、The preparatory stage for baking;8、Baking or firing.

    This is the ancient dragon kiln, also called Tongqing kiln or Tongqing furnace. Is has a history of more than 400 years. In the early years of 1950s, There were 107 dragon kilns which burned firewood. But today, there are only tow left. They are the Ancient kiln of the South and this Tongqing kiln in use which is only ancient kiln left in China for making Shiwan ceramic figurines. The temperature in the kiln changes frequently in the process of baking and makes the colour of glaze change in the kiln. This sometimes turns out some wonderful words of art which are out of imaginary. This is what we called one kiln one treasure.

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

[珍陶馆]

    这里的陶瓷产品琳琅满目,是石湾规模最大、品种最齐全的珍陶馆,它展示了30多位陶艺大师的精品。“布袋山人”是中国工艺美术大师刘传的代表作。

    这些是系列作品,有寿星系列和仕女系列等,是中国美术大师黄松坚的作品。其技法精湛,隽寓传神。这些是中国工艺美术大师刘泽棉的作品。他的陶塑以人物为主,尤其擅长制作仙佛罗汉和现代人物。这些人物神态各异、生动逼真。

    该厂生产的“红狮”牌石湾公仔获国家金质奖,成为广东省唯一获得原产地标记的工艺品,远销世界各地,也是国内外的美术馆及收藏爱好者收藏的对象。

[The Hall of Valuable Ceramics]

    The Hall of Valuable Ceramics is full of beautiful ceramic products. It is largest showroom with the most complete varieties of ceramic words which shows the extractive articles made by more than 30 ceramic art masters. The words of hop-pocket man in the hill are the magnum opus made by Liu Chuan who is one of the famous Chinese arts and crafts masters.

    These series of words, such as the words of god of longevity and the traditional beautiful women of China are made by one of the Chinese arts and crafts masters Huang Shong-jian. His works are famous for their exquisite workmanship and vividness.These works are made by another Chinese arts and crafts master Liu Zhemian. His works are mainly ceramic figurines and he is very good at making immortals, Buddha and arhat which are life-like and expressive.

    The ceramic figurines of Shiwan with the brand [Red Lion] made in this factory have been awarded the national gold metal and well-sold all over the world... Shiwan ceramic figurines are the favorite collections collected by the art galleries and collection fanciers at home and abroad.

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

[南风古灶]

    这是世界上使用时间最长的龙窑,当地人习惯把窑称为“灶”,由于它的灶口正对南方,每至夏日,南风习习,所以称之为“南风古灶”。它建于明代正德年间(1506-1521年),五百年来,窑火不绝,对于研究陶瓷业的发展有很高的价值,在我国陶瓷文物中有着不可替代的地位。2001年7月,国务院把南风古灶列为全国重点文物保护单位;被誉为“活的文物,移不动的国宝”。

    南风古灶依山而建,窑长34.4米,窑尾长着两颗高大的榕树。据传400多年前,小树是长在窑炉地基的石头上,而今纵横交错的树根却把大石头全包围了。但在这高温、无泥、缺水的环境中,它们却越长越茂盛,成为南风古灶的又一奇观!

[The Ancient Kiln of the South]

    Here is the dragon kiln with the longest history in the world. The local people were used to call the kiln as a furnace with its gob facing south. As the south wind its gob in every summer, people hence call it The Ancient Kiln of the south or the Nanfeng kiln. It was built in Ming dynasty form. the year of 1506 to 1521. The kiln has been being used for 500 years and has the great value for studying the development of ceramics which can not be replaced in the cultural relics of ceramics in China. The Ancient Kiln of he south has been listed as an important historical relic under the government protection by the State Council in July 2001. Hence it has won the reputation of the alive cultural relic and immovable national treasure.

    The Ancient Kiln of the south was built at the hill with 24.4 meters long and with tow big banyan trees growing at the trail of the kiln. They said that the tiny trees were growing on the rock at the groundsill of the kiln 400 years ago. But today, their roots have encircled the boulder after freely growing. Under the circumstances of such high temperature and without mud and lack of water, these trees still can grow such flourishing and have become another wonder at the Ancient Kiln of the South.

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

[广东石湾陶瓷博物馆]

    生活在东平河两岸的石湾陶工祖辈都从事制陶业,明清时期石湾陶业盛极一时。这幅壁画名叫《东平河图录》,全长46.2米,高2.6米,有539块陶板组成,以明末清初东平河两岸的石湾陶工劳动、生活的一天为题材,共塑造了800多个栩栩如生的人物,反映出当时的风土人情和陶业的兴旺景象。

    石湾陶瓷博物馆是广东首家以陶文化为主题的博物馆,全馆共分六大展区。这个“陶的形成”展区分为泥、形、饰、釉、火五大单元,展示石湾传统陶器制作的流程。这就是“窑的演变”展区,主要以各种窑炉模型展示了中国窑炉的发展过程。

    石湾的艺术陶瓷经历了2000多年的积淀和升华创造出形态各异的艺术陶瓷,品种繁多,分为人物、动物、微塑及瓦脊壁画等类型。这个博物馆展现陶瓷业迅猛发展的过程。

[Guangzhou Shiwan Ceramic Museum]

    The ancestors of Shiwan potters living along the Dongping River all engaged in ceramics. Hence Shiwan ceramics were in fashion in the period of Ming and Qing dynasties. This fresco named [The Copy of the Dongping River] is composed of 539 pieces of pottery boards with 46.2 meters long and 2.6 meters high, figuring more than 800 lifelike characters with the theme of their one day’s working and living in the period of late Ming and early Qing dynasties and sowing the natural conditions and social customs at that time with well-develop ceramics.

    Guangdong Shiwan Ceramics Museum, divided into 6 exhibits, is the first museum showing the pottery civilization in Guangdong province. The exhibition of [Pottery in the making] is divided into 5 main parts of clay, shaping, decorations, glazing and firing, laying out the process of Shiwan’s traditional pottery-making. The exhibition of evolution of kilns lays out the course of development of kilns in China with the display of various models of kilns.

    After 2000 years of accumulation and sublimation and sublimation, the ceramic art of Shiwan has been well develop with varieties of ceramic art, including figures, animals, micro-sculptures and fresco on the tile ridge. The museum shows the course of rapid development of ceramics.

 

佛山南国陶都鈥斺斄肽厦ぶ杏⑽牡加(21)

 

(《导游实训教程》Timwu 等编)


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